Author: PDF Civil Engineering

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Acknowledgments I have to give a very special thanks to all the great folks at Sybex, especially Willem Knibbe, for working on and helping to get this project off the ground after a few years of talking about it. The next two people I would like to thank are Mary Ellen Schutz and Dassi Zeidel, the development and production editors on this book; you two made sure I stayed on track and delivered a high-quality book. I also want to thank Liz Welch (copyeditor), Candace Cunningham (proofreader), and Ted Laux (indexer) for the work you all did on this book.…

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Acknowledgments Every year that I get to work on another version of AutoCAD® Civil 3D® Essentials is a blessing, and this year is the fourth! I am very encouraged by the emails I get from readers throughout the year, asking questions and offering suggestions, and I especially like those that compliment the book. Of course, I’m just a small part of the book’s success, and it would be a terrible disservice not to mention Wiley/Sybex for giving me this opportunity yet again, and its great people for helping make the book a success. To Willem Knibbe, thanks once again for…

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Foreword Alot of things have changed in the earthbag building movement since Kelly Hart and I started to disseminate free earth- bag information on the Internet at Earthbag Building.com in 2007 and a few years later at NaturalBuildingBlog.com (formerly Earthbag ). Back then, there were not very many earthbag buildings or resources available. Today, there are thousands of earth- bag buildings, countless online videos, as well as many websites and blogs, and numerous books. The most prolific changes in this movement have come from abroad, in poor countries, where the need for safe, affordable housing, schools, clinics, eco toilets, and…

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In this article we will try to answer who invented cement by exploring its history and development. The history of cement or cementing material is as old as the history of construction. It is nearly impossible to construct a structure without using a cementing material. Early history and invention of cement Some kind of cementing materials were used by Egyptians, Romans, Indians and Greeks in their ancient constructions. It is believed that the early Egyptians used the cementing materials produced by burning gypsum. From an analysis of mortar from the Great pyramid showed that it contained 81.5 % of calcium sulphate and…

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We can distinguish three main types of foundation which are: the surface foundationthe deep foundationthe special foundation Introduction: A structure, whatever its form and destination, is supported on a seat floor and transmits a set of loads to it.The elements which play the role of interface between the supporting structure and the ground constitute the foundations .Adapted to both the structure and the nature of the soil, they take various forms so as to ensure a good distribution of stresses. We distinguish the following different types of foundation : 1-Superficial foundations Continuous soles under the wall. Insoles insulated under pillars. Plots and sills. 2-Foundation by deleting general.…

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The guidelines for the construction of stairs vary depending on the regulations. The requirements for the dimensions of the stairs are defined by standards. For apartment buildings with two apartments maximum the minimum useful width is 0.90 m and the height / depth ratio of 17/29. In summary 1- Definition:2- Characteristic of a staircase:3- Terminology of a staircase:4- The elements to know for the calculation of a staircase:5- Stairs with straight steps: 5-1- DETERMINATION OF THE NUMBER N OF MARKET HEIGHTS:5-2- DETERMINATION OF THE HEIGHT OF THE MARKET:5-3- CALCULATION OF GIRON G:5-4- CALCULATION OF STAIRCASE RECOVERY:5-5- CALCULATION OF THE ESCAPE OF A STAIRCASE: 6- Guardrails and…

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